Breast cancer risk perception: what do we know and understand?

Our perceptions of breast cancer risk are largely inaccurate and are often associated with high levels of anxiety about cancer. There are interesting cultural differences that are not well researched. Genetic risk counselling significantly improves accuracy of women’s perceptions of risk, but not necessarily to the correct level. Reasons for this are unclear, but may relate to personal beliefs about susceptibility and to problems or variations in risk communication. Research into the impact of demographic and psychological factors on risk perception has been inconclusive. An understanding of the process of developing a perception of risk would help to inform risk counselling strategies. This is important, because knowledge of risk is needed both for appropriate health care decision making and to reassure women who are not at increased risk.

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Content:
  • Factors associated with the perception of risk
  • The experience of cancer in the family
  • Less common types of Breast Cancer
  • Role of genetic risk counselling
  • Role of truGeny

Factors associated with the perception of risk

Individuals with strong family histories may acknowledge an increase in risk, but frequently think in non-Mendelian terms and are more influenced by their particular familial experience of the condition. Their perceived vulnerability may be based on the burden of cancer in the family rather than on the hereditary nature of a faulty gene. This will help to explain why some women do not adjust their risk to the value given by the genetic counsellor. A number of other factors have been explored for their possible association with risk perception, including demographic and psychological factors, coping and cognitive factors and heuristic factors. The impact on risk perception of anxiety proneness, ‘state’ anxiety (ie anxiety at a particular moment, such as when attending for risk counselling), prior mental health, age, the number of affected relatives and the individual doctor who is communicating risk information have been evaluated, but no conclusive associations have been identified.

The experience of cancer in the family

The timing of illness events and deaths in cancer-prone families is often an important triggering factor in consideration of personal risk and in seeking risk assessment and advice on risk management or cancer prevention. Women’s perceptions of vulnerability may be developed from this ‘lived experience’ of cancer and through strong identification with an affected or deceased mother or sister. This is congruent with findings in other genetic conditions, in which the ‘availability heuristic’ has been found to influence risk perception. This means that people judge an experience that is cognitively ‘available’ (ie can be remembered) as more likely to occur, and beliefs about the frequency of lethal events may lead to overestimation of risk of disease occurrence or of the seriousness of the risk. Moreover, the perception of the severity of the disorder tends to be included in the interpretation of the risk, irrespective of the risk value given at genetic counselling. Thus, both cognitive and emotional factors interplay in the formulation of risk perception.

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Role of genetic risk counselling

The positive impact of genetic risk counselling on risk accuracy has been shown repeatedly, and additional information in the form of a personal letter or audiotape of the consultation, or a more general video presentation have all been shown to confer additional small benefits in accuracy of risk perception. They may help to reduce factual inaccuracies and reinforce retention of correct information. It remains to be seen whether new forms of risk presentation using innovative computer graphics can improve on these results. The most effective methods of presenting risk information to women who continue to overestimate or underestimate are still to be determined, but an important initiative has recently been taken by the American Cancer Society to try to develop a consensus communications model that provides guidance for breast cancer risk communication. The recommendations include the avoidance of the concept of lifetime risk; use of absolute risk in preference to relative risk; an agreed definition of ‘high risk’, which is based on the need to take different action from the average woman and the use of comparison risks for other diseases. These recommendations follow logically from published research in the field, and will have implications for the delivery of risk information both in educating the general population and in personalised genetic risk counselling.

Role of truGeny

trugeny is a telegentic platform of India that provides a complete solution for Genetic Counselling and Testing Services. Our expert counsellor goes through a thorough investigation of you and your family’s medical history. They diagnose the risk of you being susceptible to Breast Cancer or any other Genetic disorder. Based on the counselling report, Testing is advised. Post the testing, the results are again briefed to you for a clear understanding of your health. Further, the experts will also guide you through your future decisions.

Visit www.trugeny.com today to book an appointment today!

Breast Cancer: Types, Symptoms, and Role of Genetic Testing.

Breast Cancer is one of the most common cancer after skin cancer. It is found mostly in women than men, but males get affected too.

Rigorous awareness campaign and development in the medical science have improved the survival rate. Peole are far more aware and concious of the same hence, early detection is possible resulting in reduced number of deaths.

Learn more about Breast Cancer

Content:

  • What are the types of Breast Cancer?
  • Special types of invasive Breast Cancers.
  • Less common types of Breast Cancer
  • Early symptoms of Breast Cancer
  • Role of Genetic Testing in Breast Cancer

What are the types of Breast Cancer?

The type of breast cancer is determined by the specific cells in the breast that are affected. Most breast cancers are carcinomas, which are tumors that start in the epithelial cells that line organs and tissues throughout the body. When carcinomas form in the breast, they are usually a more specific type called adenocarcinoma, which starts in cells in the ducts (the milk ducts) or the lobules (milk-producing glands). Find below the types of breast cancer:

  • Ductal Carcinoma In Situ (DCIS): Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS; also known as intraductal carcinoma) is a non-invasive or pre-invasive breast cancer. Here, the cancer starts in the milk duct and is not spread across the breast tissues.
  • Invasive Breast Cancer (ILC or IDC):Invasive (or infiltrating) breast cancer has spread into surrounding breast tissue. The most common types are invasive ductal carcinoma and invasive lobular carcinoma. Invasive ductal carcinoma makes up about 70-80% of all breast cancers.

Special types of invasive breast cancers:

Some invasive breast cancers have special features or develop in different ways that affect their treatment and outlook. These cancers are less common but can be more serious than other types of breast cancer.

  • Triple-negative breast cancer:Triple-negative breast cancer is an aggressive type of invasive breast cancer that accounts for about 15% of all breast cancers. It is a difficult cancer to treat.
  • Inflammatory breast cancer: Inflammatory breast cancer is an uncommon type of invasive breast cancer. It accounts for about 1% to 5% of all breast cancers

Less common types of breast cancer:

There are other types of breast cancers that affect other types of cells in the breast. These cancers are much less common, and sometimes need different types of treatment

  • Paget disease of the breast: Paget disease of the breast starts in the breast ducts and spreads to the skin of the nipple and then to the areola (the dark circle around the nipple). It is rare, accounting for only about 1-3% of all cases of breast cancer.
  • Angiosarcoma: Sarcomas of the breast are rare making up less than 1% of all breast cancers. Angiosarcoma starts in cells that line blood vessels or lymph vessels. It can involve the breast tissue or the skin of the breast. Some may be related to prior radiation therapy in that area.
  • Phyllodes tumor: Phyllodes tumors are rare breast tumors. They develop in the connective tissue (stroma) of the breast, in contrast to carcinomas, which develop in the ducts or lobules. Most are benign, but there are others that are malignant (cancer).
Find out more about the types

Early symptoms of Breast Cancer:

  • A lump in your breast or underarm that doesn’t go away. This is often the first symptom of breast cancer. Your doctor can usually see a lump on a mammogram long before you can see or feel it.
  • Swelling in your armpit or near your collarbone. This could mean breast cancer has spread to lymph nodes in that area. Swelling may start before you feel a lump, so let your doctor know if you notice it.
  • Pain and tenderness, although lumps don’t usually hurt. Some may cause a prickly feeling.
  • A flat or indented area on your breast. This could happen because of a tumor that you can’t see or feel.
  • Breast changes such as a difference in the size, contour, texture, or temperature of your breast.
  • Changes in your nipple, like pulls inward, is dimpled, burns, itches, develops sores
  • Unusual nipple discharge. It could be clear, bloody, or another colour.
  • A marble-like area under your skin that feels different from any other part of either breast.
Know more about the symptoms:

Role of Genetic Testing in Breast Cancer:

What if we say you could find out if you are prone to this deadly illness? What if we say Genetic Testing could be the answer?

Genetic Testing involves probing into your chemical database, your DNA. This test can reveal plenty about you, your past, your health, happiness, IQ. In fact. To some extent, it can determine your future too!

Needless to say, your genes are not the only ones responsible for everything, other aspects like environment, lifestyle are responsible as well!

Knowing details about your health from Genetic Testing means that you can determine the risks of you being susceptible to various diseases and ailments. Therefore, we can also predetermine the risks of you getting affected by the killer – Breast Cancer.

But we should always keep in mind that a positive testing result does not signify that you will definitely be affected, neither does a negative result mean that you will never be affected. It is just a way to be cautious and take preventive measures accordingly.

How does Genetic Testing work?

Some females inherit certain gene changes (or mutations) that intensify the risk of being affected by Breast Cancer (or any other cancer).

In the case of Breast Cancer, the most significant changes inherited mutations occur in BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes. Individuals having either of these gene changes are prone to have Breast Cancer (or Hereditary Breast and Ovarian Cancer – HBOC).

Females with the abovesaid gene change are likely to have Breast cancer, ovarian cancer, pancreatic cancer. While the males are exposed to the risks of getting breast, prostate, and pancreatic cancer.

Factors affecting the risk in terms of Genetic Testing:

If your family holds a history of breast or any other cancer, the chances of you being affected by the illness multiples. But the risk depends on certain factors like:

  1. Closeness with the family member suffering/suffered from cancer
  2. The number of family members who were affected
  3. The age, when they were diagnosed with cancer. If he/she was detected at a younger age, then it is a matter of grave concern

Results of Genetic Testing:

Before opening your results, you should always keep in mind that Genetic Testing is for sure one of the biggest tools to prevent and take precautions against Breast Cancer but it might not provide clear answers. Hence, heading to a genetic counsellor once the results have arrived is very important.

When the result is positive, there could be ways to reduce the risk or even prevent it. If you are already detected with this cancer, your course of treatment might change, for better of course!

When the result is negative, you should be happy but that does not eliminate the chances of you being affected later, as we said earlier, your environment, lifestyle plays an important role too.

When the result is inconclusive, you should probably get another test done or talk to your genetic counsellor.

When the result is positive for a variant unknown significance, it signifies that the test did find a gene change but is not sure if that may affect the risk. In this case, you should consult your genetic counsellor for the next step.

In short, we can say, Genetic Testing in case of Breast Cancer is certainly a good choice to assess the risk factors.

truGeny – India’s first telegenetic platform:

truGeny is India’s first telegenetic platform providing an end-to-end solution for Genetic Counselling and Testing services. Our expert and certified genetic counsellors will help you in understanding your risks based on your health and family history. Once the test is conducted, our counsellors will explain the test results to you and guide you on the next steps. Choose a healthy future by being aware of your genes and your risk Learn with truGeny. Book your appointment. Visit us at www.trugeny.com.

Types of Prenatal Genetic Testing

The entire journey of bringing a new life in our lives is a beautiful journey – right from family planning to delivering the baby and beyond. A beautiful, healthy baby is all we wish for. As soon as this journey starts, we go through multiple medical treatments, follow home remedies suggested by our elders, and N number of advices come our way. But apart from regular medical treatments, what can actually help us with this process is Prenatal Genetic Testing.

Read more about Prenatal Genetic testing

Content:

  • Role of Prenatal Genetic Testing in Family Planning.
  • What are the two main types of prenatal genetic tests?
  • Carrier Screening Genetic Testing.
  • The Solution.

Role of Prenatal Genetic Testing in Family Planning

In the event of anything going wrong with the health of a baby brings about a lot of turmoil emotionally, physically, and monetarily. Adding to these, brutal societal pressure is another major fight. The challenge is not only for the parents but the baby suffering goes through an ordeal while dealing with the physical and mental issues.

THE CHALLENGE
Is not only for the parents but the baby.

India is a vast country where a huge number of children are born every year. As per records around more than 10 lakh babies are born with genetic disorders each year. All of us know, prevention is better than cure. Even though most Genetic Disorders do not have a cure, but we do have a science to prevent this! Yes! We can avoid risking our future. Wondering how?

Well, the answer is Prenatal Genetic Testing.

Prenatal Genetic Testing involves looking at your DNA and understanding your risk for certain diseases as well as your risk of passing on a disease to your children. Knowing details about your health from Genetic Testing means that you can determine the risks of you being susceptible to various diseases and ailments.

Needless to say, your genes are not the only ones responsible for everything, other aspects like environment, lifestyle are responsible as well! Even though it is best to get Prenatal Genetic Testing before getting pregnant, but this test can be done later as well. Genetic Testing can also be done at point of time during the pregnancy.

Read more about Family Planning and Prenatal Genetic Testing

WHAT ARE THE TWO MAIN TYPES OF PRENATAL
GENETIC TESTS?

Prenatal Genetic Testing is widely classified into two segments, namely Prenatal Screening Testing and Prenatal Diagnostic Testing.

Prenatal screening tests:

These are conducted to identify whether the baby is more or less likely to have certain birth defects, or genetic disorders. These tests include blood tests, a specific type of ultrasound and prenatal cell-free DNA screening.

Prenatal Diagnostic Testing:

Diagnostic testing will give you insights into the situation. This will help you understand the risks better. The results help you in taking your future decisions and planning the course of action in terms of your family planning. These tests are done on cells from the fetus or placenta obtained through amniocentesis or chorionic villus sampling (CVS).

AMNIOCENTESIS:

Amniocentesis is a diagnostic test usually done between 15 weeks and 20 weeks of pregnancy, but it also can be done up until you give birth. In this process, a very thin needle is used to withdraw a small amount of amniotic fluid. Ultrasound is used to guide the procedure. Depending on the way the cells are analysed and the information that you want, results can take from 1 day to several weeks. Leakage of amniotic fluid and slight bleeding can occur after amniocentesis. In most cases, both stop on their own.

CHORIONIC VILLUS SAMPLING:

In CVS, a sample of tissue is taken from the placenta. The main advantage of having CVS over amniocentesis is that CVS is performed earlier than amniocentesis, between 10 weeks and 13 weeks of pregnancy. The chance of miscarriage with CVS is slightly higher than the chance of miscarriage with amniocentesis.

Carrier Screening Genetic Testing:

Carrier testing is a genetic screening test done while you are planning for a family. This process involves screening of your genes to determine if you are carrying genes for certain genetic disorders and your risk of passing them on to your future children. A Genetic disorder will persist in a person only when they carry two defected genes. A positive screening test helps you to assess the level of risk you are at while having a baby with genetic disorders.
Read more on Carrier Testing

The Solution:

Genetic Testing is the future of medical treatment. And truGeny is a thorough Genetic Counselling and Testing servicesplatform.

Genetic counsellors from truGeny are certified and will help you in understanding the risk of you passing on a genetic condition to your future child, by understanding your health and family history. They will further guide you whether you require Genetic Testing. Post the testing process, the experts guide you through your report helping you plan your course of action. Genetic Counselling and Testing will build a stronger and healthier tomorrow. We believe with your support we can help in bringing the change. Let us join hands together. Let us choose to be healthy, be strong.

Book your appointment now! Visit www.trugeny.com

Is the Indian society indifferent towards differently abled children?

India being a democratic country, the citizens should get the highest importance. Hence, every policy created in this country should be benefitting every citizen. But India is a diverse country with people from various religion, culture, race, caste and ethnicity. The policies are adapted in a way where the need of every individual from every diversity is catered to. Keeping in mind the growth of everyone, the country falls back on Special policies, reservation systems, pension plans and so on. These policies are designed to ensure the benefits of differently abled people too. Prior to 2011 when the International year of the disabled was observed, no specific data on the differently abled was available. Post that, a census data was generated which marked around twenty-one million individuals with some form of disability, which is more than two percent of the total population. While, the count of mentally retarded takes up the second position in the report. Since 2011, India saw a hike in the count of differently abled individuals. According to a report from the World Bank, around forty to eighty million people are differently abled. Poverty, unemployment, and illiteracy are very common amongst the families of the differently abled.

Read more about the policies for the differently abled

Content:

  • Societal behaviour towards the differently abled
  • Education and them
  • Inclusive policies
  • Solution
  • The role of Genetic Testing and Counselling Services and truGeny

Societal behaviour towards the differently abled

Differently abled children fall prey to discrimination in our society. The family of the affected at times behave indifferently towards the children. They face seclusion and negative attitude from their closest ones. These children are deprived of all the love, care, affection they seek for from their family. They are neglected. In fact, at times the children are abandoned by their parents, especially in rural areas. The society believes that a differently abled child is a curse to the family and the society.

The lack of awareness, literacy, and ignorance towards such a sensitive topic have led the society to behave so indifferently towards them. The discrimination, awkward looks, sympathy, makes it really difficult for these special children to distance themselves from the society. Not just the society, the policies that are built to support every individual does not benefit them much. The pensions are way too meagre for them to sustain.

Education and them

Education is the key to success. But these special children are deprived from this basic necessity. The policy makers have long been ignoring the fact that the special children need a tailor-made syllabus and education system for them. Kerala, being the state with the highest rate of literacy in India, implemented a specially curated course and system for the differently abled in 2016. Therefore, we can imagine the situation in other states. Vocational training would make it easy for them to make a living. There are just three states in India with affiliated vocational training centres. The others have schools run by NGOs and associations like the YMCA. These associations do not get enough funding to support all the requirement. The teachers attached to these schools do not get paid and eventually end up leaving the job. Funds is a dire need for these NGOs to operate these educational institutions.

Know more about the institutions

Inclusive policies

The current focus is on inclusive policies. But the question is how inclusive are these policies and how does it benefit the differently abled? The physically challenged still stand a chance in these policies, but the mentally challenged got no luck at all. National Institute of Mentally Handicapped, India have just one percent of people going in there. Even though the institute promises employment but they fail to do so. As per the reservation system, just a three percent is reserved for them in the employment sector.

Solution

Even though a small percentage of the Indian population are differently abled, but we cannot ignore them. They are equally important. Their needs must also be catered to. We need to work towards the betterment of them. To start with, we can get aware and educated of the situation. Social exclusion is the next step. The government policies and reservation systems should work in favour of them. Special care cells must be incorporated. The education system should be improved. More job opportunities should be introduced.

As Stephen Hawkins said, “People with disabilities are vulnerable because of the many barriers they face: attitudinal, physical, and financial. Addressing these barriers is within our reach and we have a moral duty to do so. But most importantly, addressing these barriers will unlock the potential of so many people who have so much to contribute to the world. “Governments everywhere can no longer overlook the hundreds of millions of people with disabilities who are denied access to health, rehabilitation, support, education, and employment—and never get the chance to shine.” Let us unlock their potential. Let us support them.

The role of Genetic Testing and Counselling Services and truGeny

Even though there is nothing much that can be done to cure the differently abled. But Genetic Testing can enable you to learn about risks of your baby having any form of Genetic disorder well in advance, while you are pregnant. We cannot stop their pain, but we can prepare ourselves. Genetic counselling and testing will enable you to make decisions best suited for the baby and you. It will help you prepare for the care that your baby might need in case of any situation.

truGeny, India’s first tele-genetics platform helps you with genetic risk evaluation and guides you through your pregnancy journey. Certified and expert genetic counsellors will firstly perform a genetic diagnosis and your risk evaluation. The counsellors will help you understand the risks that you and/or your baby might be susceptible to after learning your medical history and your family’s health history. Based on the risk evaluation, they will guide you if you need to undergo Genetic Testing. The experts will also help you understand your genetic test report. Based on your report, they will also guide you on the best course of action.

Visit www.trugeny.com to book your appointment now.

Differently abled children and the Indian Society

The term Differently Abled is used as a substitute for Physically or Mentally Challenged Individuals. Our Indian society, even in the 21st Century, has not adapted themselves in accepting Differently Abled Children. In most cases, these children and treated with awkwardness, dislike, and sympathy. Whereas, they should be treated with empathy. As a matter of fact, in rural areas, they are considered a curse.

Not only the children, but their families also undergo mental and financial trauma because of societal pressure. Parents with differently-abled children abandon their kids, because of the societal pressure. At times they abandon them for the fear of financial exertion.

Differently Abled Children fall prey to discrimination leading to charity and even pity. They are often deprived of basic services like education. They are segregated from the others. In many cases, they face barriers that prevent them from enjoying their civil, political, economic, social, cultural, and developmental rights.

The lack of awareness, ignorance, and prejudice in our society has led to such a situation. It is also because some legislation fails to protect the rights of differently-abled children.

It is time we accept them, understand them. We treat them with empathy. Give them the rights they deserve. We should enable them with the justified opportunity they need. Our society needs some additions like taking care of their special needs to make them feel comfortable.

Watch out this space to know more about the plights of these kids and the role of Genetic Testing. Visit www.trugeny.com.

Down Syndrome: Understanding the risks

While being home to a culturally heterogeneous population, India is also a crucible to genetic diversities. Alike other developing countries, India is experiencing an accelerating switch to non-communicable diseases. Genetic disorders are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in the cities. Due to the high birth rate in India, a very large number of infants with genetic disorders are born every year almost half a million with malformations and 21,000 with Down syndrome.

Some of the most common genetic disorder found in India are:

  • Down Syndrome
  • Thalassemia
  • Sickle Cell Anaemia
  • Cystic Fibrosis
  • Tay-Sachs

Down Syndrome
Down Syndrome, also known as Trisomy 21, occurs when an abnormal cell division results in an extra full or partial copy of chromosome 21.

Down Syndrome is one of the most common genetic disorders. The physical features and developmental changes occurring in this condition is due to the extra genetic matter. It takes two affected genes for Down Syndrome to occur in an individual.

The severity of this syndrome is different for every individual. Down Syndrome causes intellectual disability for life. It also hampers the growth and development of the affected.

Down Syndrome is the most common inherited chromosomal disorder, ruptures the learning abilities of the individual. Other medical abnormalities caused due to this include gastrointestinal and heart disorders.

A clear understanding of this disorder enables the parents and the caregivers of the affected to deal with the scenario tactfully, helping the affected individual live a fulfilling and quality life.

Symptoms
Individuals with Down Syndrome will have developmental and intellectual disabilities that may be mild, moderate, or severe. The ones with mild symptoms might be healthy otherwise but the ones with moderate or severe symptoms can go through serious heart issues.

Individuals with Down Syndrome have distinct features. Even though not all the affected individual will have similar features but the most common features are:

  • Short height
  • Flattened face
  • Small head
  • Short neck
  • Protruding tongue
  • Upward slanting eyelids (palpebral fissures)
  • Remarkably shaped or small ears
  • Poor muscle tone
  • Broad, short hands with a single crease in the palm
  • Comparatively short fingers and small hands and feet
  • Excessive flexibility
  • Tiny white spots on the coloured part (iris) of the eye called Brushfield’s spots

An infant with Down Syndrome is of normal size when born, but their growth rate slows down and is shorter than children of their age group.

Risk factors
Some couples are susceptible to the risk of having babies with Down Syndrome. The factors that higher the risk may include:

Advancing maternal age: Chances of a woman giving birth to a baby with Down Syndrome increases after the age of 35. This is because, the older the eggs get, the higher the chances are for them to divide the chromosomes improperly.

Being carriers of the genetic translocation for Down syndrome: Translocation means the genetic transfer of a part of a chromosome to another. This process results in the rearrangement of genes.

The male or the female can are capable to pass the genetic translocation for Down Syndrome to their children.

Having had a child with Down syndrome: Couples who have given birth to a child with Down Syndrome are more likely to have another baby with the same. It could also be possible if the parents themselves have a translocation.

The approach: Past and present
Earlier couples planning for pregnancy never had the scope to find out about the future and the health risks of their children. It was more about luck and hope that they can produce a healthy little one.

In those days, the lack of awareness made it very difficult for society to accept children born with Down Syndrome. The caregivers would also face a lot of trouble to deal with babies with such a condition. Not just that, in many cases the superstitious beliefs, even forced some couples to discard their new-borns right after they were born. Financial hassle also led to such tragic incidents.

Thanks to the rapid progress and more awareness, society is slowly changing its outlook towards kids with these disorders. With easy access to information and awareness programs, people are understanding the situation and are accepting those kids.

It has also become easier for parents and caregivers to deal with children. But that does not solve the problem completely because there still are people, communities who have shut their mental doors and refuse to accept the truth. The unfortunate events of discarding babies still prevail.

We are lucky to be a part of the era where science is making almost everything possible. Now it has enabled us to find out whether a couple is exposed to the risk of having a baby with genetic disorders.

Prevention

Even though, there’s no way to prevent Down Syndrome. But Genetic Counselling and Testing services can help you assess the risks of having a baby with Down Syndrome. Depending on the results you can take your decision and plan the next steps.

Although it’s never too late to have genetic testing done, it is always a good idea to go for testing while you are planning to start or grow your family. In case you are already pregnant, 11 and 13 weeks of your pregnancy could be the best time for you to undergo testing and a genetic counsellor can guide you through the journey.

truGeny is India’s first telegenetic platform providing an end-to-end solution for Genetic Counselling and Testing services.

Our expert and certified genetic counsellors will help you in understanding your risks based on your health and family history. They will also help you decide if genetic testing is ideal for you. Once the test is conducted, our counsellors will explain the test results to you and guide you on the next steps. Choose a healthy future by being aware of your genes and your risk of passing on any condition to your future child. Learn with truGeny.

Book your appointment. Visit us at www.trugeny.com

Getting pregnant after 35? – Boost your fertility

In our career driven, fast, competitive society, couples mostly plan for late pregnancy these days. With respect to the age at which a woman is getting pregnant, she is broadly categorised in either of the following:

  1. Low risk category – When she is within the age of 30 years
  2. Moderate risk category – When she is between 30-35 years
  3. High risk category – When she is above 35 years
35 years and above is considered as Advanced Maternal Age. There are a lot of speculations revolving around getting pregnant after 35, but not all are true. In fact, 40 being the new 30, most of the women, couples choose to get pregnant after 35.

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Advanced maternal age: Getting pregnant after 35
Yes! Age definitely plays an important role when it comes to getting pregnant. The younger you are, the easier it is to conceive. But that does not mean getting pregnant after 35 is not possible. As a matter of fact, most women pregnant after 35 have successfully delivered healthy babies! Needless to say, with age our immunity weakens and we tend to have certain health related issues. The following could be reasons to worry in case of advanced maternal age:

  • The chances of having twins or multiples increases with maternal age. Fertility treatments, which is more common in older women can increase the probability of twins or multiples too.
  • Being diabetic can cause tension in your pregnancy. In certain cases, women develop diabetes while they are pregnant.
  • Another problem that older women are exposed to is High blood pressure (or hypertension). They can even tend to develop high blood pressure during pregnancy.
  • Babies born to older women are susceptible to birth defects due to genetic disorders or chromosomal issues.
  • The probability of stillbirth or miscarriage is higher with age.
  • Pre-eclampsia is a disorder where the mother suffers from high blood pressure which she developed while being pregnant.
  • Chances to giving birth to premature babies is more.

Click here to know more about the risks of advanced maternal age.

Like said earlier, getting pregnant after 35, at an advanced maternal age does not necessarily mean bad news, certain changes tips and tricks could lead to a healthy pregnancy. The first thing one should do while planning to get pregnant after 35 is to boost their fertility.

Natural ways to boost your Fertility
Even though fertility and age go hand in hand, but there are ways to keep your fertility nourished. Some diet and lifestyle tips and tricks could help you in getting pregnant after 35, with a healthy pregnancy.

  • Foods with antioxidants: Intaking antioxidants like folate and zinc help in improving fertility for both the partners. Antioxidants disable the free radicals in the body, which damages the sperm and egg cells.Fruits, vegetables, nuts, and grains are high in antioxidants like vitamins C and E, folate, beta carotene, and lutein.
  • A wholesome breakfast: Consuming a wholesome breakfast help woman with fertility problems. PCOD – Polycystic Ovarian Disease is one of the major reasons for infertility. The impacts of PCOD can be reduced by intaking a larger wholesome breakfast.

  • Say no to trans-fat: Consumption of healthy fat every day is important for boosting fertility and overall health. However, trans fats are associated with an increased risk of ovulatory infertility, due to their negative effects on insulin sensitivity.
  • Low carb diet: Maintaining a low carb diet is recommended for women with Polycystic Ovarian Disease (PCOD). Not just low carb diet, refined carbs should be specifically avoided.
  • Consumption of fiber: Fiber helps in keeping the blood sugar level balanced in your body by getting rid of excess hormones. They can also help in removing extra estrogen by binding it to the intestines eventually draining out of the body as waste products.
  • Protein sources: Replacing some animal proteins (such as meat, fish, and eggs) with vegetable protein sources (such as beans, nuts, and seeds) is associated to a reduced risk of infertility.
  • High fat dairy: Intaking high fat dairy instead of low fat can reduce problems associated with infertility.
  • Multivitamin intake: Chances of infertility can be reduced with the intake of multivitamin every day.
.

  • Exercise regularly: Exercising regularly is beneficial for women with PCOD. It also increases fertility in both women and men. However, excessive exercise might have negative impacts on fertility of women. A balanced exercise is what is required.
  • Rest:Taking time out to relax is very important. The hormonal imbalance when in stress acts negatively on fertility for both men and women. Hence, taking breaks from all the worries in regular intervals is very important.
  • Reduce caffeine: Even though the association between caffeine and fertility is not confirmed yet, it is always better to limit the consumption to one to two cups a day.

Prenatal Genetic Testing while planning to get pregnant
The primary concern of parents-to-be and their relatives is to have a healthy baby while keeping the well-being of the mother. Apart from boosting your fertility through various natural ways and consultation with doctors, Prenatal Genetic Testing while you are planning your family, can give you more clarity.

Genetic Testing is a new day technology which gives us the details of our genes. The process involves screening of our genes and understanding the risks that you or your future baby might be exposed to.

While planning for a baby, Carrier Testing is done. This is Genetic Screening Test. It is done on both the parents.  The result of Carrier Testing will determine whether you are capable to pass on your genetic disorders to your child.

For a baby to have genetic disorder, he or she needs to have two defected genes.

If the result in Carrier Testing is positive, further a Diagnostic Screening Test is performed. This test gives you the insights of the risk. The results help you understanding the risks better and enables you to take your decisions properly.

Click here to learn more about Prenatal Genetic Testing

Role of truGeny

truGeny is an end to end Genetic Counselling and Testing services platform in India. We are on a mission to build a healthier nation, where no new born is born with difficulties. We know how difficult it gets both for the parents and the child to survive through the pain of genetic disorder. The societal and financial burden makes it even more complicated.

Expert Genetic counsellors from truGeny are certified. They help you in understanding the risk of you passing on a genetic condition to your future child. This process includes understanding your health and family history. Post which they will further guide you whether you require Genetic Testing. Soon after the testing process, the counsellors guide you through your report helping you plan your course of action.

We understand the current scenario where heading out from home, or visiting a doctor could be risky hence we are providing the entire service package from the comfort of your home.

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Advance maternal age pregnancy

How to take care of an advanced maternal age pregnancy?

The conveniences of the 21st Century have empowered women to have better control over their fertility. Easy access to birth control and contraception, has provided women a wide array of career choices and the ability to delay their maternal journey. However, mother nature has its own set of timelines.

From a maternity perspective, women are broadly classified into three categories. Women aged below 30 falls under the low-risk category, and women aged between 30-35 years are considered to be carrying a moderate risk. Women above the age of 35 and trying to conceive are considered to be in the high-risk bracket. This classification helps physicians to identify, monitor, and deliver the right care to their patients. While most of the time, even the women classified as high risk and are over 35 years of age do have a healthy pregnancy, yet the chances and concerns of risks must not be ruled out.

The risks of advanced maternal age pregnancy

The implications of age are very relevant and therefore the more advanced the maternal age is the risk. This implies that the conditions and complications are likely to be more in an older woman when compared to a younger woman, which may put the mother and the baby at risk. Risk of complications may include: Chances of having twins or multiples are high: The probability of having twins or multiples increases with maternal age. The chances also increase with fertility treatments, which are more common with older women. The risks while having multiples include premature birth, pre-eclampsia, gestational diabetes (diabetes during pregnancy), and fetal growth problems. Diabetes: Older women are more likely to be diabetic or to develop diabetes during pregnancy (gestational diabetes). Diabetes when untreated can cause grave complications which include birth defects, excessive fetal growth (baby is too large), miscarriage, and pre-eclampsia. High blood pressure: High blood pressure (or hypertension) is again something that tends to be prevalent in older women. They also tend to develop high blood pressure during pregnancy (gestational hypertension). The risks of such conditions could be life-threatening, including pre-eclampsia, problems with the placenta and fetal growth, pre-term delivery, and placental abruption.

Birth defects: Babies born to older women are at greater risk of birth defects caused by genetic disorders or chromosome problems, such as Down syndrome. These defects can cause problems in the overall health of the baby – how the body develops, or how the body functions.

Pregnancy loss: The chances of stillbirth or miscarriage increase with age.

Pre-eclampsia: Pre-eclampsia is a condition where an individual suffers from high blood pressure that is developed during pregnancy. One of the major causes of pregnancy-related deaths of both mother and baby is Pre-eclampsia. In such a condition, the blood supply to the fetus is reduced, the mother might face malfunctioning of various organs in her body, placental abruption (a condition where the placenta detaches from the womb), and pregnancy loss.

Premature birth and low birthweight: Premature babies may face serious health problems at birth and later in life.

Precautions
If you are in the age group that puts you in the high-risk category, it would be important for you to plan before conceiving. Counselling and detailed discussions with your physician will help you understand as well as take the right steps to ensure a safe pregnancy.

Expert assessment of the age-related risks to you and your baby

Early and more frequent prenatal visits to closely monitor your pregnancy and quickly address any complications

Regular monitoring and early detection and treatment of gestational diabetes and high blood pressure

Coordinated management of any pre-existing conditions and medications you take for those conditions, in collaboration with your other health care providers

Ongoing monitoring of your baby’s growth and development

A carefully planned delivery, preventing the need for a cesarean delivery when possible

Birth defect screening, testing, and counseling

Advanced maternal age pregnancy and Genetic counseling
Genetic Counseling and Testing play a significant part in ensuring a safe and healthy pregnancy. Genetic counselling can help you learn about your genetic risk and the best reproductive options. G is considered to be one of the best modes of treatment for every woman with advanced maternal age.

It is highly recommended for women in the categories of high or moderate risk should undergo genetic counselling. Based on the diagnosis, they can plan the next steps and make informed decisions.

Genetic counseling and testing will enable you to make decisions best suited for the baby and you. It will also help you prepare for the care that your baby might need in case of any unforeseen situation.

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truGeny – Your answer for a safe pregnancy

truGeny, India’s first tele-genetics platform helps you with genetic risk evaluation and guides you through your pregnancy journey. Certified and expert genetic counsellors will firstly perform a genetic diagnosis and your risk evaluation. The counselors will help you understand the risks that you and/or your baby might be susceptible to after learning your medical history and your family’s health history. Based on the risk evaluation, they will guide you if you need to undergo Genetic Testing. The experts will also help you understand your genetic test report. Based on your report, they will also guide you on the best course of action.
While these are some of the steps that you could take for ensuring a safe and healthy pregnancy journey, you must remember that genetics plays a very important role in pregnancy as well as in the future of your baby’s health. Genetic Counselling and Testing is a path to safe pregnancy. Book your appointment now! Visit www.trugeny.com

Lifestyle disorders and your genes

Introduction:

The genetic composition of every human being is comprised of a unique coding sequence that might appear similar but is not identical in any way

. We do get genetic information encoded from our parents and it leaves a similar impact like in them. Sometimes the genes in offsprings are not the complete copy but do go through mutations. The results of those mutations either appear better or worse in some cases.

. The mutated genes leads to a disease or even risk of developing one in later stages of life. These alterations in the genes are considered as the cause of some chronic diseases including cardiac diseases, diabetes, different cancers, etc.

. Although most of us are prone to producing some or the other lifestyle disorders of heart, lung, and even diabetes or cancer. But the individuals who carry disease linked genes from their family or parents are undoubtedly more prone to develop chronic diseases at some point in life.

. With advancements in science and technology today, it is possible to trace the probability of developing such diseases so that preventive measures and precautions can be taken before time. It can help in minimizing the chances of developing such lifestyle diseases that get converted into fatal life threading conditions eventually over time.

. With never-ending list of lifestyle diseases, today there also exists endless methods to minimize its chances of occurrence.

What causes diseases?

  • Several contributors from genes, lifestyle changes, and even environmental factors contribute to some extent or cause the disease.
  • Like any neurological disorder, including Huntington’s Disease, specific diseases might only be confined to genetic defects. But there are endless diseases that are triggered by growing age, primarily due to vigorous lifestyle adaptations and changes.
  • Such lifestyle disease developments, including several types of cancers, can be minimized by being aware of our genetic formations. Knowing probable risks of developing such diseases makes a person more cautious about taking preventive measures.

What is the all hype about genetic testing these days?

  • It is a medical test designed to understand the structural composition of DNA, which includes genes, chromosomes, and characteristic proteins. There are thousands of genetic tests available for different reasons, and still, more in the process of making every day.
  • From prenatal testing to newborn screening and even for carrier testing for knowing the family history of genetic diseases, it helps in all. Genetic testing actually helps in identifying the root cause of the disease and several symptoms which either are not prominent enough yet or are not getting a proper cure.
  • A deep dig in the genome of every person decodes the root of the disease. After that, looking out for the cure becomes an easy process for the doctors

What does a genetic test reveal about lifestyle disorders?

  • A genetic test might decode several lifestyle disorders risks.
  • Endless diseases get triggered due to nutritional incompetencies, lifestyle issues like smoking, drinking alcohol, or even lack of exercise. All such things aggravate the chances of developing diseases, mainly if risks exist in the genes.
  • Does nobody actually think about what are the 10 most common diseases? But everyone must give a thought about it because that might lead to a path of reminding oneself that so many conditions exist being so common in everyone’s life.
  • Opting for a way to keep diseases at bay before something can trigger its development is taking a genetic test for a complete evaluation of risks.
  • So being aware of different types of diseases and their causes and prevention might not guarantee a complete healthy life, but the probability of that certainly increases.

What benefits do genetic tests offer?
It benefits in many ways, like:

  • Some of those tests, like gene tests, help identify mutations that might be a cause of any genetic disease.
  • Whereas chromosomal testing helps in identifying any genetic condition because of any extra copy presence.
  • Several DNA abnormalities can be identified after the birth of the newborn to understand the reason for a particular disease and further eases the treatment options.
  • It can even help in diagnosing any preimplantation issues that might be a hurdle in conceiving a child.
  • Pharmacogenetics is an exemplary effort of science today. It helps in understanding which medication of a particular dose can provide effective results for a specific disease. It saves time and, most importantly, lives in cases when the patient has limited scope to survive, etc.

How can taking a genetic test helps in minimizing the chances of developing any disease?

  • The disease susceptibility genetic test or DSGT helps in evaluating the fact of the presence of any defective genes. Those genes actually might exist in the entire family clan unknown until the test is run, or it starts showing its symptoms and gets diagnosed in the form of a disease.
  • Further, 7 to 8 lakh people in India alone are dying because of cancer; and the number even goes to 1 million for deaths caused by diabetes. Similarly, cardiac disorders also contribute to millions of deaths per year besides endless heart surgeries being conducting in making people survive.
  • t is always better to know about the existing deformities than let those deformities triggered by any environmental or lifestyle factor get converted into a disease. In this way, knowing it all before it exists provides a tool to prevent such diseases from becoming a real part of life.
  • Undoubtedly, precautions will become part of life if any such deformities are diagnosed in genetic testing, But that way, preventing disease is way better than living to fight and curing it.

What is the role of yoga in preventing lifestyle diseases?

  • Yoga is just a lifestyle adaptation or modification to help in preventing or healing of some diseases. Although yoga alone might not be the solution for diseases that occur mainly due to high-risk genes, one might possess.
  • Further, knowing about your genes and risk factors does give a realization of which lifestyle modifications to opt for.
  • So to achieve better health miles, yoga in combination with a balanced diet and lifestyle is a must

Conclusion:

As per the statistical data mortality rate of non-communicable diseases or NCDs is growing every year. Several diseases like diabetes, heart diseases, stroke, different types of cancers, and many such diseases are taking their toll on the lives. Almost 71% of the global deaths are all due to such fatal diseases, which are often triggered by particular lifestyle or environmental factors.

But in reality, such diseases contribute to the existing genes that exhibit the risk of developing such diseases. So opting for genetic testing can help in knowing about such existing risks, and hence preventive measures can help.

Further, evidence supports the fact that 70% to 85% of the diseases can be prevented by adopting healthy lifestyle habits. For that also nutrigenomics does come in help revealing the interaction between certain foods and specific genes.

So to lead a long and healthy life, genetic counselling and testing are necessary for the several benefits it offers. For that TruGeny portal can be reached for any sort of assistance regarding the same. The portal not only provides personalised genetic insight but also ensure affordability.

TruGeny believes in the principle of taking charge of your own health destiny by getting proper evaluation of genes via testing. TruGeny offers an easy access to your genetic information by registering with few simple details. Contact TruGeny for more detailed information and get your all queries answered.

The future of family planning Prenatal Genetic Counselling & Testing.

Family Planning – Exciting Times
While Family planning is exciting, it is also a sensitive subject. For a couple, right from the decision of starting a family till the birth of their baby and beyond is an emotional journey. The biggest and first priority for most couples is to have a healthy baby.

In the event of anything going wrong with the health of a baby brings about a lot of turmoil emotionally, physically, and monetarily. Adding to these, brutal societal pressure is another major fight. The challenge is not only for the parents but the baby suffering goes through an ordeal while dealing with the physical and mental issues.

India is a vast country where a huge number of children are born every year. As per records around more than 10 lakh babies are born with genetic disorders each year.

Genetic Disorders
Genetic disorders are triggered by changes in the genes or chromosomes of the individual. When there are missing or extra chromosomes, the condition is known as Aneuploidy. Trisomy is a state where there is an extra chromosome. While monosomy is the case of a missing chromosome. Mutations, i.e. change in genes, cause Genetic disorders. Inherited disorders include sickle cell disease, cystic fibrosis, Tay–Sachs disease, Down syndrome, Inherited Cancers, and many others. To have any of these conditions, both the parents should carry the same gene to have an affected baby.

Prevention
All of us know, prevention is better than cure. Even though most Genetic Disorders do not have a cure, but we do have a science to prevent this! Yes! We can avoid risking our future. Wondering how? Well, the answer is Genetic Testing.

Genetic Testing involves looking at your DNA and understanding your risk for certain diseases as well as your risk of passing on a disease to your children.

Knowing details about your health from Genetic Testing means that you can determine the risks of you being susceptible to various diseases and ailments.

Needless to say, your genes are not the only ones responsible for everything, other aspects like environment, lifestyle are responsible as well!

Genetic Testing for Family Planning
Carrier testing is a genetic screening test done while you are planning for a family. This process involves screening of your genes to determine if you are carrying genes for certain genetic disorders and your risk of passing them on to your future children.

A Genetic disorder will persist in a person only when they carry two defected genes.

A positive screening test helps you to assess the level of risk you are at while having a baby with genetic disorders.

Diagnostic testing will give you insights into the situation. This will help you understand the risks better. The results help you in taking your future decisions and planning the course of action in terms of your family planning.

The best time
The perfect time to get tested is before getting pregnant or at preconception. If you plan for the testing post-conception, the ideal time would be around 11 and 13 weeks.

It is never too late to opt for Genetic Testing. If you have any concerns, the counsellors will help you find the answers and assist you in understanding the risks. This process will also enable you with better clarity to take further actions.

In case you did not get testing done before, getting tested while you are pregnant helps your caregivers to be more prepared for the upcoming situation.

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Solution

Genetic Testing is the future of medical treatment. And truGeny is a thorough Genetic Counselling and Testing services platform.

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Genetic Counselling and Testing will build a stronger and healthier tomorrow. We believe with your support we can help in bringing the change. Let us join hands together. Let us choose to be healthy, be strong.

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